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Spanish

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START TO UNDERSTAND Spanish with a Simple Story (A1-A2) Spanish Cómo elegir una casa de apuestas en línea or Castilian castellano is a Romance Spanixh of the Spaish language family Spamish Cómo elegir una casa de apuestas en línea from the Vulgar Latin spoken on the Iberian Juegos de azar con reembolso en efectivo of Europe. Today, Neighbor Bet Method is a global language with about Spajish native speakers, mainly in the Americas and Spainand about million when including speakers as a second language. The country with the largest population of native speakers is Mexico. Spanish is part of the Ibero-Romance language groupin which the language is also known as Castilian castellano. The group evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.

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Conversely, the use of the verb forms of vos with the pronoun tú tú pensás or tú pensái is called "verbal voseo ". In Chile, for example, verbal voseo is much more common than the actual use of the pronoun vos , which is usually reserved for highly informal situations.

In Central American voseo , one can see even further distinction. Although vos is not used in Spain, it occurs in many Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular familiar pronoun, with wide differences in social consideration.

Tuteo as a cultured form alternates with voseo as a popular or rural form in Bolivia , in the north and south of Peru, in Andean Ecuador, in small zones of the Venezuelan Andes and most notably in the Venezuelan state of Zulia , and in a large part of Colombia.

Some researchers maintain that voseo can be heard in some parts of eastern Cuba, and others assert that it is absent from the island. Tuteo exists as the second-person usage with an intermediate degree of formality alongside the more familiar voseo in Chile , in the Venezuelan state of Zulia , on the Caribbean coast of Colombia , in the Azuero Peninsula in Panama, in the Mexican state of Chiapas , and in parts of Guatemala.

Areas of generalized voseo include Argentina , Nicaragua , eastern Bolivia , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , Costa Rica , Paraguay , Uruguay and the Colombian departments of Antioquia , Caldas , Risaralda , Quindio and Valle del Cauca.

Ustedes functions as formal and informal second-person plural in all of Hispanic America, the Canary Islands , and parts of Andalusia. It agrees with verbs in the 3rd person plural. The use of ustedes with the second person plural is sometimes heard in Andalusia, but it is non-standard.

Usted is the usual second-person singular pronoun in a formal context, but it is used jointly with the third-person singular voice of the verb. It is also used in a familiar context by many speakers in Colombia and Costa Rica and in parts of Ecuador and Panama, to the exclusion of tú or vos.

This usage is sometimes called ustedeo in Spanish. In Central America, especially in Honduras, usted is often used as a formal pronoun to convey respect between the members of a romantic couple. Usted is also used that way between parents and children in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.

Most speakers use and the Real Academia Española prefers the pronouns lo and la for direct objects masculine and feminine respectively, regardless of animacy , meaning "him", "her", or "it" , and le for indirect objects regardless of gender or animacy , meaning "to him", "to her", or "to it".

The usage is sometimes called "etymological", as these direct and indirect object pronouns are a continuation, respectively, of the accusative and dative pronouns of Latin, the ancestor language of Spanish.

Deviations from this norm more common in Spain than in the Americas are called " leísmo ", " loísmo ", or " laísmo ", according to which respective pronoun, le , lo , or la , has expanded beyond the etymological usage le as a direct object, or lo or la as an indirect object.

Some words can be significantly different in different Hispanophone countries. Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognize specifically American usages.

For example, Spanish mantequilla , aguacate and albaricoque respectively, 'butter', 'avocado', 'apricot' correspond to manteca word used for lard in Peninsular Spanish , palta , and damasco , respectively, in Argentina, Chile except manteca , Paraguay, Peru except manteca and damasco , and Uruguay.

In the healthcare context, an assessment of the Spanish translation of the QWB-SA identified some regional vocabulary choices and US-specific concepts, which cannot be successfully implemented in Spain without adaptation. Most of the core vocabulary and the most common words in Spanish comes from Latin.

The Spanish words first learned by children as they learn to speak are mainly words of Latin origin. These words of Latin origin can be classified as heritage words, cultisms and semi-cultisms. Most of the Spanish lexicon is made up of heritage lexicon. Heritage or directly inherited words are those whose presence in the spoken language has been continued since before the differentiation of the Romance languages.

Heritage words are characterized by having undergone all the phonetic changes experienced by the language. This differentiates it from the cultisms and semi-cultisms that were no longer used in the spoken language and were later reintroduced for restricted uses. Because of this, cultisms generally have not experienced some of the phonetic changes and present a different form than they would have if they had been transmitted with heritage words.

In the philological tradition of Spanish, cultism is called a word whose morphology very strictly follows its Greek or Latin etymological origin, without undergoing the changes that the evolution of the Spanish language followed from its origin in Vulgar Latin.

The same concept also exists in other Romance languages. Reintroduced into the language for cultural, literary or scientific considerations, cultism only adapts its form to the orthographic and phonological conventions derived from linguistic evolution, but ignores the transformations that the roots and morphemes underwent in the development of the Romance language.

In some cases, cultisms are used to introduce technical or specialized terminology that, present in the classical language, did not appear in the Romance language due to lack of use; This is the case of many of the literary, legal and philosophical terms of classical culture, such as ataraxia from the Greek ἀταραξία, "dispassion" or legislar built from the Latin legislator.

In other cases, they construct neologisms, such as the name of most scientific disciplines. A semi-cultism is a word that did not evolve in the expected way, in the vernacular language Romance language , unlike heritage words; its evolution is incomplete.

Many times interrupted by cultural influences ecclesiastical, legal, administrative, etc. For the same reason, they maintain some features of the language of origin.

Dios is a clear example of semi-cultism, where it came from the Latin Deus. It is a semi-cultism, because it maintains without fully adapting to Castilianization, in this case some characteristics of the Latin language—the ending in -s—, but, at the same time, it undergoes slight phonetic modifications change of eu for io.

The Catholic Church influenced by stopping the natural evolution of this word, and, in this way, converted this word into a semi-cultism and unconsciously prevented it from becoming a heritage word.

Spanish vocabulary has been influenced by several languages. As in other European languages, Classical Greek words Hellenisms are abundant in the terminologies of several fields, including art , science , politics , nature , etc.

In the 19th century, new loanwords were incorporated, especially from English and German, but also from Italian in areas related to music, particularly opera and cooking. In the 20th century, the pressure of English in the fields of technology, computing, science and sports was greatly accentuated.

In general, Latin America is more susceptible to loanwords from English or Anglicisms. For example: mouse computer mouse is used in Latin America, in Spain is used ratón.

This happens largely due to closer contact with the United States. For its part, Spain is known by the use of Gallicisms or words taken from neighboring France such as the Gallicism ordenador in the European Spanish, in contrast to the Anglicism computador or computadora in American Spanish.

Spanish is closely related to the other West Iberian Romance languages , including Asturian , Aragonese , Galician , Ladino , Leonese , Mirandese and Portuguese. It is generally acknowledged that Portuguese and Spanish speakers can communicate in written form, with varying degrees of mutual intelligibility.

Ethnologue gives estimates of the lexical similarity between related languages in terms of precise percentages. In general, thanks to the common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages, interlingual comprehension of the written word is greater than that of oral communication.

In Romance etymology, Latin terms are given in the Accusative since most forms derive from this case. As in "us very selves", an emphatic expression. Also nós outros in early modern Portuguese e. The Lusiads , and nosoutros in Galician. Alternatively nous autres in French.

noialtri in many Southern Italian dialects and languages. Medieval Catalan e. Llibre dels fets. Modified with the learned suffix -ción. Depending on the written norm used see Reintegrationism. This negative meaning also applies for Latin sinistra m "dark, unfortunate".

Romanian caș from Latin cāsevs means a type of cheese. The universal term for cheese in Romanian is brânză from unknown etymology. Judaeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino, [] is a variety of Spanish which preserves many features of medieval Spanish and some old Portuguese and is spoken by descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from Spain in the 15th century.

The relationship of Ladino and Spanish is therefore comparable with that of the Yiddish language to German. Ladino speakers today are almost exclusively Sephardi Jews, with family roots in Turkey, Greece, or the Balkans, and living mostly in Israel, Turkey, and the United States, with a few communities in Hispanic America.

It contains, however, other vocabulary which is not found in standard Spanish, including vocabulary from Hebrew , French, Greek and Turkish , and other languages spoken where the Sephardim settled. Judaeo-Spanish is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly as well as elderly olim immigrants to Israel who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren.

However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardi communities, especially in music. In Latin American communities, the danger of extinction is also due to assimilation by modern Spanish.

A related dialect is Haketia , the Judaeo-Spanish of northern Morocco. This too, tended to assimilate with modern Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region. Since , none of the digraphs ch, ll, rr, gu, qu are considered letters by the Royal Spanish Academy. The letters k and w are used only in words and names coming from foreign languages kilo, folklore, whisky, kiwi , etc.

With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as México see Toponymy of Mexico , pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on the stressed vowel. The interrogative pronouns qué , cuál , dónde , quién , etc.

also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and some demonstratives ése , éste , aquél , etc. can be accented when used as pronouns. Accent marks used to be omitted on capital letters a widespread practice in the days of typewriters and the early days of computers when only lowercase vowels were available with accents , although the Real Academia Española advises against this and the orthographic conventions taught at schools enforce the use of the accent.

When u is written between g and a front vowel e or i , it indicates a " hard g " pronunciation. A diaeresis ü indicates that it is not silent as it normally would be e. Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question and exclamation marks ¿ and ¡ , respectively and closed by the usual question and exclamation marks.

The Royal Spanish Academy Real Academia Española , founded in , [] together with the 21 other national ones see Association of Spanish Language Academies , exercises a standardizing influence through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar and style guides.

The Association of Spanish Language Academies Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española , or ASALE is the entity which regulates the Spanish language.

It was created in Mexico in and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish-speaking world. It comprises the academies of 23 countries, ordered by date of academy foundation: Spain , [] Colombia , [] Ecuador , [] Mexico , [] El Salvador , [] Venezuela , [] Chile , [] Peru , [] Guatemala , [] Costa Rica , [] Philippines , [] Panama , [] Cuba , [] Paraguay , [] Dominican Republic , [] Bolivia , [] Nicaragua , [] Argentina , [] Uruguay , [] Honduras , [] Puerto Rico , [] United States [] and Equatorial Guinea The Instituto Cervantes 'Cervantes Institute' is a worldwide nonprofit organization created by the Spanish government in This organization has branches in 45 countries, with 88 centers devoted to the Spanish and Hispanic American cultures and Spanish language.

The institute's report "El español, una lengua viva" Spanish, a living language estimated that there were million Spanish speakers worldwide. Its latest annual report "El español en el mundo " Spanish in the world counts million Spanish speakers worldwide.

Among the sources cited in the report is the U. Census Bureau , which estimates that the U. will have million Spanish speakers by , making it the biggest Spanish-speaking nation on earth, with Spanish the mother tongue of almost a third of its citizens.

Spanish is one of the official languages of the United Nations , the European Union , the World Trade Organization , the Organization of American States , the Organization of Ibero-American States , the African Union , the Union of South American Nations , the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat , the Latin Union , the Caricom , the North American Free Trade Agreement , the Inter-American Development Bank , and numerous other international organizations.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Spanish:. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks Wikiquote Wikivoyage. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 17 March Romance language.

español castellano. Language family. Indo-European Italic Latino-Faliscan Latin Romance Italo-Western Western Romance Ibero-Romance West Iberian Castilian [2] [3] Spanish. Vulgar Latin Old Spanish Early Modern Spanish. Writing system. Signed forms.

Dependent territories. Partially recognized country. Significant minority. International organizations. Official majority language. Co-official or administrative language but not majority native language. Main article: Names given to the Spanish language.

Main article: History of the Spanish language. très , beaucoup , moult meda molto mult 'much, very, many'. See also: Hispanophone. Official or co-official language. Main article: Peninsular Spanish. Native country. More than 8. Main article: Spanish language in the Americas.

Main article: Spanish language in the United States. See also: New Mexican Spanish and Isleño Spanish. See also: Equatoguinean Spanish. See also: Canarian Spanish and Saharan Spanish. See also: Chavacano , Philippine Spanish , and Spanish language in the Philippines.

Main article: Spanish grammar. Main article: Spanish phonology. Main article: Spanish dialects and varieties. Main article: Voseo. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Further information: Comparison of Portuguese and Spanish. Latin Spanish Galician Portuguese Astur-Leonese Aragonese Catalan French Italian Romanian English nōs alterōs 1,2 "we others " nosotros nós , nosoutros 3 nós, nós outros 3 nós , nosotros nusatros nosaltres arch.

nós nous 4 noi, noialtri 5 noi 'we' frātre m germānu m "true brother" hermano irmán irmão hermanu chirmán germà arch. frare 6 frère fratello frate 'brother' die m mārtis Classical "day of Mars" tertia m fēria m Late Latin "third holi day" martes Martes , Terza Feira Terça-Feira Martes Martes Dimarts Mardi Martedì Marți 'Tuesday' cantiōne m canticu m canción 7 arch.

cançón canción , cançom 8 canção canción also canciu canta cançó chanson canzone cântec 'song' magis plūs más arch.

plus máis mais más más also més més arch. pus or plus plus più mai 'more' manu m sinistra m mano izquierda 9 arch. mano siniestra man esquerda 9 mão esquerda 9 arch. mão sẽestra manu izquierda 9 or esquierda ; also manzorga man cucha mà esquerra 9 arch. mà sinistra main gauche mano sinistra mâna stângă 'left hand' rēs, rĕm "thing" nūlla m rem nāta m "no born thing" mīca m "crumb" nada nada also ren and res nada arch.

Further information: Judaeo-Spanish. Main article: Spanish orthography. A manuscript of the Cantar de mio Cid , 13th century. Main article: Royal Spanish Academy.

Main article: Association of Spanish Language Academies. Main article: Instituto Cervantes. For a more comprehensive list, see List of countries where Spanish is an official language § International organizations.

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Retrieved 20 April Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 25 October Is your Spanish advanced, but you want to maintain and expand your abilities?

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